Mr. Deputy Secretary General,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Allow me to begin by thanking the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea for organizing and chairing this important debate. I also wish to thank the Deputy Secretary General, Jan Eliasson, and the distinguished speakers for their important contributions to the discussion.
Italy aligns itself with the statement delivered by the European Union and wishes to make the following remarks in a national capacity.
Ten years ago the adoption of the UNSCR 1540 marked an important step forward in strengthening global efforts to prevent the acquisition and use by terrorists of nuclear, biological, chemical weapons and materials, as well as their means of delivery. Since then, Italy has adopted legislative laws, regulations and policies to comply with its provisions.
Under Security Council Resolution 1540 all UN Member States are called to take appropriate measures to refrain from providing any form of support to non-State actors attempting to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use WMD and their delivery systems. States are also called to adopt legislation to prevent the proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery, and establish appropriate domestic controls over related materials to prevent their illicit trafficking. In these contexts international cooperation and enhanced coordination among States are crucial to the strengthening of a global response mechanism to tackle the challenges ahead and the threats to international security.
Recently, at the Third Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague several States and international organizations gathered to move a step forward in the strengthening of nuclear security. On that occasion, a Joint Statement on Promoting Full and Universal Implementation of Resolution 1540 was delivered by a large number of States including Italy. It was a valuable opportunity to reiterate the importance of the 1540 and its comprehensive and crosscutting scope that goes beyond the nuclear domain.
In The Hague we also submitted a Gift Basket, a Joint statement on Nuclear Security Training and Support Centres / Centres of Excellence to reaffirm that education and training are crucial to the exchange of information and best practices among States, to the strengthening of capacity building and security culture, and to the maintaining of national high level and well-trained technical experts.
Increasingly over the last few years, Italy has paid special attention to education, training and institutional capacity building as essential elements for an effective safety and security infrastructure. The International School on Nuclear Security established in 2010 with the IAEA and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste will hold in 2014 its fourth annual training course.
We believe that this educational effort should lie at the root of any strategy, which aims at strengthening a global response to WMD threats and preventing non-state actors from gaining access to sensitive material and knowledge. The field of education and training also offers a wide range of possibilities to enhance international cooperation among States. Opportunities can be seized for weapons scientists to redirect their talents to peaceful endeavors.
Synergies with the scientific community are crucial to an effective implementation of UNSCR 1540 and non-proliferation provisions. Technology is constantly evolving and this also applies to the risks associated to the spread of scientific knowledge.
Italy is a member of the Proliferation Security Initiative, is also a founding member of the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction and participates in the Global Initiative to Counter Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT). Within the framework of the GP, in 2013 we co-chaired with the U.S. the COE sub-Working Group (COEWG). COEs can play a critical role in strengthening the institutional capacity of States to mitigate CBRN risks, including criminal activities (e.g. CBRN proliferation or terrorism).
The broader scope of the 1540 is linked to major export control regimes. The current Italian Chairmanship of the Missile Technology Control Regime is also working to stress this link.
Effective measures to implement Resolution 1540 cannot disregard the importance of ensuring a regular updating of education and training systems to enable States and international organizations to effectively face the threats and the risks associated to the spread of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery means.